Abstracts Plenary Speakers
Yoshiyuki Tanaka, General Manager, Corporate Business Promotion Office, Jatco Ltd, Japan
Downsized turbocharged engines and engine start-stop systems have been spreading in recent years as measures for complying with CO2 emission regulations. However, it is predicted that drivetrain electrification will be needed to cope with tougher CO2 emission regulations that will come into force from around 2020.
Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are regarded as being effective means for complying with such tougher regulations. However, it will likely take some time for these vehicles to find widespread use owing to various issues that must be resolved, including the high system cost, deployment of the required infrastructure and material supply shortages. In contrast, it is envisioned that the use of mild HEVs will expand from around 2020 onward owing to their advantage of holding down the system cost. However, their effect on reducing CO2 emissions will be comparatively small because they mainly operate in an ICE drive mode.
The key factors for the widespread diffusion of these solutions will be considered from the dual perspectives of end-user customers and transmission suppliers. In addition, JATCO’s thinking regarding the Chinese market will be presented, focusing in particular on the specific details of the activities under way for mild HEVs.
- Background – why world top 10 transmissions selection and evaluation in China
- The organisation of the event
- Reviews of the event
Prof. Dr Xiangyang XU, Executive Deputy Director of National Engineering Research Center for Passenger Car Automatic Transmissions, School of Transportation Science & Engineering, Beihang University, China
China is not only the biggest auto market, but also the biggest transmission market in the world. Almost all important transmission manufacturers have their own plants in China, and more and more Chinese local AT/CVT/DCT/AMT/DHT manufacturers have been growing very fast in recent years.The Chinese transmission market is becoming the world’s most important and diverse market, and the Chinese customers pay more and more attention to powertrain technology and drivability.
This presentation introduces the background of world top 10 transmissions selection and evaluation organized in China and how to operate the selection and evaluation. The detailed information of the past two times of selection and evaluation will be introduced and analyzed in the presentation. Finally, some important points will be summarized
Prof. Dr Xiangyang XU
Executive Deputy Director of National Engineering Research Center for Passenger Car Automatic Transmissions, School of Transportation Science & Engineering, Beihang University, China
- New Opel and DS vehicles launched in 2018 with the new Aisin AW G-Series AT
- Lightweight and compact design with off-axis low loss oil pump
- Modular design for different optional damping strategies, stop-start capabilities and range selection methods.
Georg Bednarek, Global Program Manager & Global Chief Engineer Automatic Transmissions, Opel Automobile GmbH, Germany
The new Opel Grandland X and DS7 Crossback SUVs are launched in 2018 with new efficient 8-speed automatic transmissions in combination with two Gasoline and two Diesel engines in front wheel drive configuration. They are the first applications with the new Aisin AW G-Series transmissions 8G30 and 8G45 in Opel vehicles. The transmissions, also used in Peugeot 308 GT, cover a range of up to 300Nm and 450Nm with wide gear spreads of 7,54 and 8,20. They feature internal Electronic Transmission Range Selection (ETRS) including Park-by-Wire functionality and Stop-Start & Sailing capability by Electromagnetic Oil Pump (EMOP) or internal accumulator.
The lightweight and compact design combines improved shift quality and fuel efficiency. The torque converter with clutch and twin-stage Super Long Travel Damper provides noise and vibration benefits. A newly developed super low viscosity oil together with improved gear surface finishing and improved friction material reduce heat generation and accompanying losses. A chain driven off-axis low loss oil pump, dynamic line pressure control and a flexible lubrication flow volume control contribute to a fuel consumption benefit of about 4% in WLTP and up to 7% in Eco mode (if available), compared to the F-Series.
Disk-type brakes and direct linear solenoids with improved current response contribute to the improved shift quality. The tighter tolerances of the solenoids increase the contamination and cleanliness requirements which are supported by a closed system design with dry cavity differential, transmission integrated oil cooler and pre-filled ATF.
- Europe and China electrification take rate forecast
- Valeo hybrid P2 off-line module: a genericity enabler
- Technical details of Valeo hybrid P2 off line module
- Conclusion and next steps
Norberto Termenon, R&D Director, Valeo, France
Hybrid P2 off-line module is one the possible solution for powertrain electrification. Its modularity allows covering from 48V to HV application and from low torque to premium segment torque.
P2 off line architecture will become the best choice for at least FWD layout because of its compactness and the capacity to remove FEAD. Indeed, if the AC mechanical compressor is connected to the Electrical Machine rather than the crancshaft it allows using air conditioning when ICE is stopped, for example at red traffic light.
But to answer durability, assembly and modularity purposes, the Hybrid P2 off-line module needs to be able to fit with a huge variety of ICEs and transmissions, existing or to come. That is why the impact on ICE and transmission of this module must be limited to interface modification and never to structural modification.
To this complexity, the Valeo Hybrid P2 off-line module brings robust, compact and design to cost solution that will be described in detail in this presentation.
- Complete consideration and lead from the DHT concept to a powertrain point of view
- Solutions for hybrid concepts regarding usage, functionality and costs
- Interaction of combustion engine, electric motor and transmission
Dr Jörg Gindele, Senior Director Core Engineering, Magna Powertrain, Germany
Fast changes in legislation along with the energy transition are driving a technical development machine with a high level of innovation and enormous investment.
The number of electrified vehicles will significantly increase in coming years. However, it is not completely clear which technologies and conceptual solutions will ultimately establish themselves, and there is little experience in daily operation and customer behavior.
Development of new drive topologies that can be ideally combined with hybrid and e-drive concepts is the major challenge that the development departments need to overcome. While, on the one hand, more strongly electrified hybrid concepts are superseding the first generation of semi-electric drives, on the other hand, fully electric architectures are on their way.
In the next generation, the focus is on further improving technical features such as efficiency, power density, energy density, modularity and scalability.
Based on initial experience, however, new requirements will also be added that mainly increase attractiveness and everyday capability, such as drivability and range. The increased number of drive architectures also make it harder and harder to build modular solutions that at prices attractive to the customer.
The next generation of hybrid drives raise the issue of depth of integration for the power sources — the combustion engine and the electric motor — in connection with the driveline components bring the power to the wheels.
Today’s designs are largely an additive combination of the components. Consistent integration into an overall system could be an approach to high functionality at lower cost.
While on the transmission side, new integrated solutions such as dedicated hybrid transmissions (DHT) are being developed, on the engine side there are still a few designs that follow the same approach, integrating e-machines as a functional component of the system.
In regard to the overall powertrain the consequence would be the development of the dedicated hybrid powertrain (DHP), with which all power sources and the driveline components form a total integral system, including the controls and temperature management. The layout and integration of the components is a very complex optimization task. Essentially, according to their properties, the drive assemblies must be built and combined so that all functional requirements can be met, and technically simpler individual components are used. This way, a hybrid powertrain can be manufactured at the same or even lower cost than a conventional drive.
For the combustion engine, this means minimizing the high technical cost of efficiency, performance characteristics and exhaust treatment. On the transmission side, the number of discrete gears and the overall mechanical cost can be considerably reduced. The e-machines must be optimally suited to this.
This presentation will transition from individual component efficiency to an examination of system efficiency. It will also show what potentials can be created by system integration of components in the sense of the dedicated hybrid powertrain.
300 kW at 85 kg system weight: powershiftable 2-speed electric drive unit for high performance applications
- Axial flux electric motor and directly cooled inverter
- 2-speed powershift transmission on Ravigneaux basis
- Highest shift comfort through brake and one-way clutch
Dr Gereon Hellenbroich, Department Manager, FEV Europe GmbH, Germany
First generation electric drive units often feature a single speed transmission and radial flux electric motors (either induction or permanent magnet synchronous type). Often, the inverter is not integrated and water-cooled. For the next generation of electric drive units and especially for high performance applications, FEV and YASA have developed a concept which will include a powershiftable 2-speed transmission and still vastly increase the power density compared to today’s typical single-speed solutions.
Although mass reduction is important, the main benefit of the solution is an increase in system efficiency, which is particularly pronounced for high performance, high range next generation EV’s. This enables a battery size reduction, helping to reduce the overall powertrain cost.
- Conflict of targets between mass series large volume production and smaller, specific vehicle production volumes
- The complete system must be considered
- Modular EDS system
Prof. Dr Szabolcs Peteri, Technical Manager, hofer powertrain, Germany
The lecture will show how the requirements of the various actuators in the electric drive system can be implemented cost-effectively and in a short development time with a platform concept.
For this purpose, a control unit concept is defined, which receives its input parameters from a higher-level control unit z. B. vehicle manager via CAN, Flexray, PWM can receive and depending on the required ASIL level an actuator controls.
The actuators may be the activation of a dog clutch, an oil pump, a parking lock or another actuator, which is controlled by a brushless DC motor (BLDC). An integration in other control unit like inverter is usually not useful, as these drives are over a range of 100 W – 800 W and thus the power loss in the control unit is too large.
The ECU concept is made up of modules that are grouped together in a platform schematic. The platform diagram contains the power supply with the required voltage monitoring and the remainder concept, which is designed to cover ASIL applications as well. As a microcontroller, a Tricore with Lockstep core was selected, which also allows Autocode based functional development under Targetlink and provides a hardware that is also suitable for complex safety-critical applications.
The motor is controlled via a driver IC from TI and the corresponding power modules. The available maximum current for the motor depends on the installation position in the vehicle. If appropriate, a liquid cooling can be used. For this purpose, thermal simulations with Ansys for the respective application are triggered, which are then tracked by vehicle measurements.
All known control methods are available for controlling the motor. These are block commutation sensorless and with sensors (Hall, magnetic field) or field-oriented also sensorless and with sensors (Hall, magnetic field). The determination of the necessary parameters for the control can be easily determined by an engine test bench with brake and torque measurement.
- Intelligent combination of electric axle drive and AMT
- Attractive solution in the hybrid vehicle market
- Optimal shifting comfort through intelligent control
Dr Florian Mühlfeld, Team Manager, ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Germany
Reduction of CO2 emissions is a central goal of individual mobility. Electrification and hybridization are measures to achieve this goal. In order to keep the costs of complex powertrain systems and new developments under control, solutions are required that allow to use already developed components, including existing production capacities in hybrid applications.
For the front-transverse powertrain, ZF offers a solution to this challenge with the eAMT (electrified automated manual transmission). eAMT is a hybrid system combining the advantages of automated manual transmission and electric drive. System development costs are minimized by combining existing products for the eAMT system. In addition, manufacturers will be able to continue using existing manual transmissions, including existing production capacities.
The automated transmission enables full hybrid functionality. By appropriate control of the subsystems, the system-related interruption of traction torque during gearshift of the automated manual transmission can be compensated and the shifting comfort can be increased to the level of an automatic transmission.
The eAMT system is thus proving to be an attractive hybrid solution, especially for small vehicles to mid-range vehicles.
- New structured controller and software architectures targeting maximum flexibility and lowest possible cost
- Controllers and software as simple as possible with universal interfaces
- Master controller to be updated with extra drivability features
Ralph Fleuren, Project Manager, Transmission Systems, FEV Europe GmbH, Germany
By electrification, current powertrain architecture has become more complex during the last 10 years. Within next vehicle generations, powertrain architecture will get even more complex. There is not “one” powertrain architecture, there will be many different architectures driven by performance, CO2, costs, markets, usage and brands.
All different powertrain architectures also need new structured controller and therewith software architectures targeting on maximum flexibility and lowest possible cost. Maximum flexibility is reached by modularization of hardware parts like combustion engine, e-machine or transmissions. It also means, that different powertrain concepts can be achieved with a minimum of changes on hardware (controller) and software side. If this flexibility is reached, also cost for adaptations of different powertrain concepts will decrease.
To reach these targets, controllers and their software must be designed as simple as possible with universal interfaces. This means e.g. for a combustion engine controller, to control only the combustion itself regarding emission, fuel consumption and protection targets.
The main interface value should be a requested torque which is the same for all torque sources, e.g. e-machines or fuel cells. All drivability related functions should be moved into an overall controller that includes functions for e.g. evaluation of driver torque, drive off, drivability filters and shift maps. Also the overall handling of all controllers will be done there. The result would be one master controller and a lot of slave controllers. Due to movement of automotive industry in direction of Apps, this master controller will also have the possibility to be updated with extra drivability features like e.g. adaptive cruise control, sportively or entertainment functions.
Also on calibration side, costs can be reduced and quality can be improved. Due to a clear split between the different working areas, calibration engineers can work more efficient. As an example, combustion engine engineers will concentrate on fuel efficiency and emissions. Due to the fact that transmission has the biggest impact on drivability, former transmission engineers can take over the role of drivability engineers to calibrate the master controller. The drivability functions itself have to be re- designed in a physical way, so that the software design will be independent of the powertrain concept. Calibration loops due to split drivability functionalities in engine, transmission and hybrid controller can be avoided. Thereby synergies due to combining all drivability functions within one drivability controller will lead to time and cost benefits.
The master controller, called drivability controller, will also allow easily brand specific calibrations, even if a lot of parts are taken from Tier one supplier.
- Status quo of integrated electric drive system for HEVs and BEVs
- Driver for higher integration?
- Systematic approach to higher integration
- Enablers of higher integration
Masashi Aikawa, Chief Engineer eDrive Asia, GKN Driveline, Japan
Electrical drives play an important role in future drive trains. Both in battery electric vehicles (BEV) and in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) the electric axle drives have become very common. The author introduces integration as general topic for future electric drives. There are drives for higher integration and there are enablers for higher integration. The author attempts to consider different aspects why and how high level integration will take place. The contribution is concluded by a study how a next generation design cold look like.
- target design
- key development technology
- vehicle integration technology
- development summary
Xiaofeng CHEN, Department director, Great Wall Motor, China
As a renewable energy source, hydrogen energy will occupy an important position in the future as an energy supplement. Fuel cell vehicles (FCV) with advantages such as long drive range, short refuel time, zero emission and energy renewability, have been regarded as one of the most important solutions among electrified vehicles. With increased development of fuel cell systems and fuel cell vehicle integration technologies, the industrialization of fuel cell vehicles has already sped up.
Although the application of FCV technology is changing from demonstration vehicles into products on the market, there is still a big gap between existing products, infrastructure support and the actual needs of customers. Product testing and validation standards in enterprises and industrial regulations are still not comprehensive. The development of the FCV market is strongly dependent on policy support and support efforts from the Chinese government in this market are growing quickly. An increased amount of products launched on the market in recent years highlight the demand for FCV test and validation standards. In today’s China, few FCV can be purchased on the market, where most of them are busses and regional vehicles. For those products, the durability and fuel economy are the most important factors. Regarding these factors, a lack of test standards causes a negative influence on the development of the FCV market. Furthermore, the lack of fuel cell facilities (such as test benches or hydrogen tank stations) hinders a testing of the fuel cell products. Existing standards and norms in the fuel cell test field are solely local standards or enterprise standards, a standard of authority and universality which includes the summary of those standards needs to be proposed.
Companies have also launched FCV products on the German market. Compared to China, Germany has a more comprehensive infrastructure and test standards thanks to its successful energy policy. Even so, a survey shows a great research potential in FCV energy consumption testing and acoustic properties as a buying incentive.
With the support from BMBF in Germany and MOST in China, the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology cooperated with the Tongji University. The cooperation project aims at raising feasible potential test solutions regarding the demand in the target market with analysis and comparison of the status and research requirement in the FCV validation field.
This task processes the research of products from infrastructure to FCV products and related subsystems in both markets and furthermore, analyzes and infers the demands for FCV products and related performance indexes with consideration of use cases in the target market. By comparison and analysis of the test standards from vehicle level to fuel cell system and key subsystem level, the demands of test standards in the fields of energy consumption and acoustic comfort are defined, which results in feasible potential test solutions. Through a survey with frontline engineers in FCV related fields, the models of the two markets are checked, the surmise of test standard demands is validated and the requirements of testing processes are refined.
This topic is part of a Sino-German international cooperation project, with participation of the China Automotive Technology and Research Center (CATARC) and the German Institute for Standardization (DIN). Research results can be transferred as a reference solution for standard engineers. The market models, test standard demands and the related hypothesis of solutions in this task will be the input for further working packages related to FCV powertrain system validation and acoustic performance analysis. This project cooperates closely with the fuel cell industry. A survey with employees in FCV and fuel cell system enterprises, offers a possibility for a fast transfer of research results into the industry.
- Transmission market for heavy duty commercial vehicles
- Technology trends for non-manual transmissions
- Efficient actuation systems for non-manual transmissions
Erik Schneider, Senior Vice President Transmission & Hybrid Driveline, IAV GmbH, Germany
For the year 2020, an average CO2 emission target of 117 g/km is required for vehicle fleets on the Chinese market. The presentation will show, that this target is not achievable with the high market share of non-hybrid vehicles nowadays. The urgent question, which needs to be answered, is: What is the optimal powertrain configuration for a certain vehicle fleet to fulfill the future CO2 legislation? The overview about current DHT technologies on the Chinese market and their merits and demerits regarding driving performance, fuel economy and costs will be the basis for further investigations. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of this novel fleet investigation, different scenarios for the share of non-hybrids, HEV, PHEV and BEV will be investigated regarding their average fleet emission.
As an exemplary result for such an investigation, a front-transverse powertrain with a common base engine and a 4-speed DHT with a P2 e-motor arrangement will be introduced. A detailed look inside the transmission design will show some of the latest development trends for DHT, such as application-optimized electric motors, usage of novel shift element types like dog clutches and selectable one-way clutches as well as a hydraulic control unit with an additively manufactured valve body.