Online sessions of CTI Symposium China 2020
Session Four: Driveline Lubricants of NEV generation
21 October 2020
China time: 4:00 – 5:00 p.m. (CET 10:00 – 11:00)
Presentation language: Chinese
Dr. Jingkun LI
Driveline Product Development Team Leader
Castrol China Technology Centre
NextGen Fuel Economy Fluids for single and multi-speed eDrives
- Lubricants for HEVs and BEVs
The ongoing development of electrified drivetrains creates new technological challenges for manufacturers and their suppliers in the automotive industry. Independent from the degree of electrification, one focus of these developments is about achieving maximum transmission efficiency over lifetime to overcome e.g. range anxiety. There are various approaches to design an electrified and highly efficient drivetrain for different car segments. One crucial component which has a high impact on the transmission efficiency is the lubricant. With every transmission design the lubricant is facing different challenges. From a lubricant point of view the designs can be divided into dry systems (electric engine and lubricated gearbox are separated), wet systems (electric engine is part of the transmission and oil cooled) without a shifting element and wet systems with a shifting element. The development of fluids for each of these three design approaches and how the lubricant can help to improve the drivetrain efficiency will be demonstrated based on different examples, including eAxle efficiency testing.
The development of efficient value-adding transmission fluids for electrified drivetrains relates to several challenges. Especially for dry systems the trend goes towards lower viscosity versions of existing fluids with a proven track record. The key challenge is to guarantee high level of gear and wear protection at low viscosity. Castrol has a decade-long experience in developing low viscosity fluids for dry applications, which we want to share in this presentation. For wet systems we are CTI Symposium Seite 4 von 7 facing the same challenges, but in addition the compatibility with the electric engine plays an important role as well as the cooling performance of the fluids. Castrol has developed several tests to ensure the compatibility with vital parts of the electric engine and tests to demonstrate the cooling performance of our fluids. For wet multispeed systems further requirements are added to ensure shiftability with either synchronizer systems or wet clutches. How the right friction levels can be achieved whilst fulfilling all other requirements will also be outlined in this presentation.
Technology Manager – Driveline
Lubrizol Additive (Zhuhai) Co., Ltd.
New Perspectives of Driveline Lubricants on Copper & Alloys Corrosion Protection for Electric Vehicles
- Electrification is driving new fluid/hardware concerns
- ASTM D130 Copper Strip Test Limits
- The Novel Wire Corrosion Test
- Dedicated e-Axle fluid vs. conventional fluids
Modern e-drivelines (e.g. e-DCTs, DHTs or e-Axles) contain copper and/or copper alloy parts in the form of solenoids, washers, bushings, brazes and electrical wires. Corrosion that occurs with any of these components especially with electrical contacts can result in a malfunction of the vehicle control systems and loss of vehicle drivability. Corrosion protection of e-driveline fluids to copper and/or copper alloys is an increasingly important consideration in the design of dedicated lubricant additive technology. The complexity of oil-based corrosion mechanisms, including the temperature dependence of these processes are difficult to evaluate with simple strip tests or long duration powered solenoid tests. As a legendary test method,
ASTM D130 “copper strip corrosion” has been found in almost all e-driveline fluid specifications, monitoring corrosion processes and mechanisms in real time by this method are qualitative, subjective and hence challenging to interpret accurately, especially when evaluations at multiple temperatures are required. D130 has also been found with reproducibility issues with e-driveline fluids which contain extreme pressure chemistry and hence may not properly differentiate fluids on this performance. The target of this paper is to introduce a novel test method, namely Lubrizol Wire Corrosion Test, for the purpose of evaluating copper and/or copper alloy corrosion protection of e-driveline fluids in a quantitative and reproducible level.
The mechanism of the Lubrizol Wire Corrosion Test is new to the automotive lubricant industry, which records the change in electric resistance of a thin copper wire soaked in a test fluid under specific temperature, to provide a way to monitor the real-time corrosion of copper wire. As test development advances, a thin copper alloy wire is also used to compare the corrosion rate with pure copper. New insights on the kinetics and mechanism of copper corrosion in the presence of lubricant additives over a range of operating temperatures are discussed in the paper, which challenges some of the industry-held beliefs around lubricant additive corrosion processes, especially at elevated temperature above 150 °C. This method shows good reproducibility between different labs, offering a quantitative and cost-effective way to screen fluid chemistries over a range of temperatures for potential corrosion issues with transmission component alloys.
As the world’s leading provider of lubricant solutions, Castrol commenced its China operation in 1989 and is now a key player in the premium lubricant market. In 1998, Castrol set up its first lubricant blending plant in Shenzhen Shekou. In 2010, Castrol opened its first China Technology Centre in Shanghai Pudong. With pioneering technical expertise and rich worldwide operation experience, Castrol is committed to meeting the diverse needs of customers in China.
Castrol is highly involved in sponsoring global pinnacle football and racing events. It sponsored the 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa and 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil, as well as the 2008 and 2012 European Championships. In the field of motorsport, Castrol EDGE is the designated oil for Audi, Ford, Honda and many more. It helped the teams and drivers achieve winning performance in top-level international racing events such as WRC and Dakar Rally. In 2017, BP Castrol worked with Renault to claim a strong return to F1. In addition to the fuel and lubricants supply by BP Castrol, it will also support the team’s ambition to lay claim to the F1 World Championship in the next five years.
For a long time, Castrol has been chosen as the partner and recommended brand of many of the world’s leading automobile manufacturers, such as Audi, Jaguar Land Rover, Volvo and Ford. Castrol collaborates closely with its partners to co-develop pioneering technologies, customize high-quality lubricants and is always committed to providing better products and service for Chinese consumers.
Castrol (Shanghai) Management Co., Ltd.
Floor 3, Building 5, No. 255 Guiqiao Road, Shanghai, China
L. Gore & Associates is a global materials science company dedicated to transforming industries and improving lives. Since 1958, Gore has solved complex technical challenges in demanding environments — from outer space to the world’s highest peaks to the inner workings of the human body. With more than 10,500 Associates and a strong, team-oriented culture, Gore generates annual revenues of $3.7 billion.
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