Powertrain electrification has given innovation an enormous boost – and the desire and need to further reduce CO2 emissions will accelerate that development in future. As a result, we can expect ongoing improvements to existing solutions and the development of innovative new concepts. CTI symposia – an eye for essentials The architectures of electrified powertrains, […]
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Powertrain electrification has given innovation an enormous boost – and the desire and need to further reduce CO2 emissions will accelerate that development in future. As a result, we can expect ongoing improvements to existing solutions and the development of innovative new concepts.
CTI symposia – an eye for essentials
The architectures of electrified powertrains, with their subsystems and components, have become more complex. Various hybrid drive versions now compete, and powertrains use multiple motors in different roles. All-electric drives are also highly diverse, with new options being added all the time. This obscures the path forward, and drives up development costs.
Sophisticated drive design – from battery stack to in-wheel motor
CTI SYMPOSIUM Germany will show how intelligent strategies can master this growing complexity, and how the most promising solutions can be filtered out systematically from the wealth of possibilities. It will also make clear that in order to optimise powertrains, developers need to think even more holistically – a process that now involves focussing more strongly on energy storage systems.
New Energy runs in the family – developing a flexible transmission concept
The future belongs to powertrains with different levels of electrification. This means vehicle fleets urgently require multiple new energy solutions. One thing the different approaches have in common is the growing complexity of their powertrain structures. In response to these challenges, GETEC has designed a new energy product family that will be presented at CTI SYMPOSIUM Germany by Sven Steinwascher (GETEC, Germany).
The transmission concept is designed for use in EV, REEV (Range Extender EV) and DHT applications. The development goal was to use as many common parts as possible for subsystems and components, in order to reduce costs and development times for each product in the family. The outcome of the concept study was a two-speed power shiftable gear train as the base for the various applications. For EVs, the gear train will be equipped with an EM on the input side. For REEVs, an additional e-motor will be added that is directly connected to the ICE (P1 type) to also permit series hybrid mode. For DHTs, the REEV application will also be fitted with a separation clutch to allow a direct mechanical gear from the ICE to the wheels. This will enable full hybrid functionality including boost mode, load point adaption, series and parallel hybrid mode. This flexibility will enable OEMs and Tier 1 suppliers to respond quickly to dynamic market challenges. As part of his presentation, Sven Steinwascher will also summarise the development conditions of complex powertrain systems under high market pressure.
Dedicated hybrid powertrains – high-level optimisation
When it comes to achieving short- and medium term CO2 targets, dedicated hybrid powertrains (DHP) provide a good cost-efficiency ratio. At this level of hybridisation, powertrains comprise an ICE and an e-motor with a Dedicated Hybrid Transmission (DHT). “DHPs have been optimised over several generations for high efficiency and low complexity,” says Dr Wolfgang Wenzel (BorgWarner, Germany) in his lecture. “The goals were to improve fuel economy and reduce the high cost of the electrical components.“
Cost-wise, DHPs are attractive because they combine electric motors with simplified transmissions and combustion engines. They boost efficiency by keeping the ICE running in the sweet spot, and by recuperating energy. In a simulation study, Dr Wolfgang Wenzel compared the design requirements, CO2 potential and performance of various dedicated HEV hybrid powertrains for a C-segment vehicle. The study compared two well-known concepts – power split and multi-mode DHT – with a 4-gear DHT and a parallel P2 architecture with DCT, which served as the benchmark. The hybrid controller used the Equivalent Consumption Minimizing Strategy (ECMS). Key aspects of the study include optimising transmission designs for use cases by incorporating driving requirements, identifying individual influences and their effect on the system, and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each main approach. DHPs have great potential for further development; in his lecture, Dr Wolfgang Wenzel will illustrate some of these opportunities.
More compact, more efficient – battery and e-axle as an optimised overall system
Like drives, energy storage systems play a prominent role in electric vehicles. In the early days, issues like range anxiety and charging times tended to dominate the discussion. Today, developers are factoring battery / e-axle interaction into their powertrain designs. A new joint venture by the Chinese Evergrande Group and German engineering specialist Hofer Powertrain aims to develop the optimal battery / e-axle combination for different individual overall systems. In his lecture, Hartmut Schneeweiss (Evergrande hofer Powertrain, Germany) will present the results of a simulation process that examined the interaction between EMs with an optimised transmission unit and new energy storage strategies.
The process focus rested on improving the electric axle in ways that would also permit the energy storage system to be downsized in terms of size, power and weight. There were three main objectives: to operate the e-axle in the ’sweet spot’ more frequently; to reduce material and power consumption for the e-axle drive, and to reduce battery volume and weight via a new, multifunctional design. This involved downsizing all electrical components while improving the vehicle’s overall energy balance. In an iterative simulation process, the best component combinations (e-axle / battery) were identified and evaluated with incremental improvement. Function blocks were defined, and their potential continuously re-tested. Within these function blocks, developers could alter factors such as new battery cell technology, SuperCaps, new semiconductor materials and different e-machine types as desired. Finally, a product specification for a new e-axle and a recommendation for an energy storage system were created.
In-wheel motors – making space for innovative solutions
Unlike e-axles, which are based on a classic drive model, in-wheel motors use a fundamentally different concept. Obvious benefits include independent torque control at each wheel for greater safety and manoeuvrability, and weight and energy savings achieved by removing unnecessary components such as transmissions and power transmission components.
In his lecture, Richard Burke (Protean Electric, Great Britain) will take these qualities as a given and will address a different aspect that may prove more decisive in future: namely, the fact that in-wheel motors are extremely compact and require no extra space in the chassis. To specifically assess the potential benefits, Protean has modelled the chassis structure and interior spaces of a range of EVs. Options under consideration include modifying the wheelbase, and packaging the battery in the space gained. Unlike e-axles, which tend to constrain passenger car design options, in-wheel motors could afford designers a new level of freedom in future.
Electric Vehicles – meet your new buyers!
In 2009, people who owned a Tesla Roadster felt like pioneers. Eleven years on, electric vehicles are established in the market, with dozens of new models planned to arrive the next few years. These next-generation vehicles are encountering a new generation of buyers.
In his analysis, Mike Dovorany (Escalent, USA) will focus on customers and speak of a ‘tipping point’ brought about by the fact that newly developed electric vehicles differ significantly from their predecessors in terms of performance (longer range and shorter charging times), design and functionality. “As a result, they are already attracting very different buyers than EVs in the last decade.” In an informative comparison with first-generation buyers (2009 – 2019), Mike Dovorany will detail the specific characteristics of this new generation. Taking market-specific differences between Europe, China and the USA into account, he will present the latest research results and address common misunderstandings. As his lecture will show, it’s not just automobiles that change over time – buyers and drivers do too.
CTI SYMPOSIUM Germany goes online – and boosts its energy density
Discover CTI SYMPOSIUM GERMANY 2020 as a top quality, inspiring online event! The new format offers you multiple ways to interact and communicate with speakers, attendees, and exhibitors, including live video calls. Experience the new SYMPOSIUM DIGITAL EXPO as your platform for new products, live presentations, 1on1 meetings and much more besides. The substantial reduction in attendance fees is not just extremely budget friendly, it also means more colleagues can participate. Best of all, there’s no travelling: all you do is log in. Save time and money with a convenient online event that adapts to your individual schedule, and reduces your carbon footprint too. Be there – be a pioneer!
The vision is sustainable mobility, with automobiles that operate in a carbon-neutral way. But how is this green future coming along? More than ten years after the Tesla Roadster came out of the starting blocks for a glorious sprint, even optimists are now gearing up for a marathon. The early days are history, and today […]
The vision is sustainable mobility, with automobiles that operate in a carbon-neutral way. But how is this green future coming along? More than ten years after the Tesla Roadster came out of the starting blocks for a glorious sprint, even optimists are now gearing up for a marathon. The early days are history, and today we face new challenges.
CTI Symposia – pacemakers of progress
Innovations need a forum where they can be presented and discussed. Our CTI Symposia put the full spectrum of powertrain electrification on the agenda for an international audience on three continents. They catch new trends early, and track them carefully. Leading suppliers and OEMs present their development findings in dedicated sessions, while prominent guests explain their point of view in the plenum and take part in the discussion. The road may still be long, but the fast pace of progress is undiminished.
One level higher – from a scalable DCT building set to the DHTplus
Last year Magna presented the DHTeco family, which comprises a 2+4-speed DHT (EM / ICE) base transmission and derivatives with an identical gear set layout for conventional and 48V applications in the cost sensitive market for 230/300 Nm system torque. This year, Dr Sebastian Idler (Magna Powertrain, Germany) will present an upmarket DHT line called DHTplus. The new system takes segment-specific requirements into account, but continues the concept of DHT system integration on the basis of a unified, scalable DCT building set. The DHTplus is designed for hybrid applications up to 400 Nm ICE torque, and offers electric boosting capacity up to 500 Nm system torque. The DHTplus has five mechanical gears; the 120 kW e-machine replaces the launch gear and optionally, the reverse gear. The DHTplus has a shorter installation length than a 7-speed 48V hybrid transmission. To meet requirements in higher vehicle segments, it offers additional functionalities – essentially by installing a C0 coupling. Meaningful benefits include the crawler functionality with approx. 40% more electric low speed manoeuvring torque, ICE start at any speed, e-drive power-shift, and charge during standstill and creeping. The EM can also be disconnected for efficient ICE-only cruising. What the DHTplus has in common with the DHTeco is its consistent system approach for advanced dedicated hybrid operation, combined with DCT advantages such as proven functionality and scalability. In addition to these aspects, Dr Sebastian Idler will also focus on detailed solutions for optimal efficiency and performance in all-electric, hybrid and ICE driving modes.
Obviously more efficient – flat wire motors for NEV powertrains
Diesel or petrol? When it comes to ICEs, the number of variants is fairly easy to manage. But with electric motors, NEV powertrain designers have a wide range of alternatives at their disposal. Accordingly, Jing Chen (Zhejiang Founder Motor, China) will begin with an overview of the available designs (PSM/ASM, high/low voltage, air/water/oil cooling, single tooth/distributed winding, round/flat wire motor). He will describe their respective advantages and disadvantages, and will recommend suitable applications. As a propulsion solution for NEVs, flat wire motors have obvious advantages. Their slot fill factor is higher than in round wire motors, increasing power density and overall efficiency. Since the windings are more closely arranged, heat dissipation is faster and the stator temperature is reduced.
Jing Chen will also discuss the inherent technical challenges of flat wire motors, such as their efficiency and thermal behaviour at high speeds. The FDM 220 flat wire platform motor he will present offers excellent levels of performance, efficiency and reliability. Power output and heat dissipation have been increased significantly. Maximum efficiency stands at 97.5%, while NEDC cycle average efficiency is above 94%. To back his view that flat wire motors are an emerging technology with high development potential, Jing Chen will also share information ranging from structural details up to the highly-automated manufacturing process.
Double benefit – hybrid solutions for modern stepped planetary automatics
Over the last five years, many transmission builders have invested heavily in state-of-the-art stepped planetary automatics. In the light of electrification and parallel powertrain hybridisation, their efforts are now proving doubly useful. “This re-use can save transmission builders hundreds of millions of euros”, says Chris Shamie (Schaeffler Group, USA) in his presentation.
The parallel hybrid options he will present deliver CO2 reductions while simultaneously increasing potential for vehicle performance. The technology spectrum comprises P2 hybrid modules for rear wheel drive, and P1/P2 hybrid modules for front wheel drive.
The efficiency of a series-production P2 rear wheel drive has been confirmed by validated fuel economy improvements. The speaker’s presentation of the new modular front wheel drive solution for 48V P1 or high-voltage P2 solutions promises to be of particular interest. The space-neutral P1 solution enables developers to hybridise even vehicles whose frame-rail constraints have so far prevented it. In general, axial space claims are far lower when hybridising stepped planetary automatics. The approach increases efficiency without sacrificing performance, and also reduces development costs by re-using existing, modern planetary transmissions.
CTI Symposia – a popular platform for OEMs
Leading OEMs have also confirmed their participation at CTI SYMPOSIUM Germany. We are pleased that BMW, Mercedes and Volvo will be among the brands presenting their latest developments.
In 2020/21, BMW will launch its new iX3. The company’s first e-SUV will compete with the Jaguar I-PACE, the Mercedes EQC and the Audi e-tron. In keeping with BMW’s ‘Power of Choice’ strategy, the all-electric iX3 will complement existing X3 family drive options. In his lecture, Dr Edmund Bauchrowitz (BMW, Germany) will take a closer look at the technical details of the advanced electric drive system. In the fifth-generation BMW eDrive, rear wheel drive is provided by a highly integrated e-axle developed in house by BMW; the transmission, e-machine and power electronics all share a single housing. The EM has a maximum output of 210kW / 286PS and a maximum torque rating of 400 Nm. Power density is 30% higher than earlier BMW pure electric drives. Motor efficiency is 93%, and the battery has a net capacity of 74 kWh for ranges of up to 460 km under WLTP. Interestingly, no magnets – and hence no rare earths – are required to produce the motor.
The second generation of the familiar 9G-TRONIC automatic transmission with ISG based on 48V is the first member of the new ‘art’ (Architecture of Rear-wheel Transmission) modular system for longitudinally mounted transmissions at Mercedes-Benz. As Marcus Sommer (Mercedes Benz, Germany) will explain in his talk, in this upgrade of the 9G-TRONIC automatic transmission the integrated starter generator (ISG) is now part of the transmission, not the engine. This helps designers to implement solutions that will meet package specifications for a standard front end, with the corresponding fixed geometry points. It also means developers can use the same specifications across the whole rear-wheel drive vehicle platform, regardless of engine choice. Building on the current concept of a modular automatic transmission with a longitudinal build, the redesign of the 9G-TRONIC automatic transmission with torque converter pursues several objectives. The transmission helps reduce fuel consumption, weight and friction losses in the various vehicle model series, and also promotes drivetrain modularisation and electrification to ensure consistency across all longitudinal powertrains.
From race to road – how sport enables e-drive tech transfers
In addition to competing for business in the markets, many automobile brands also seek to compete on the racetrack. Besides enhancing their company’s image, the aim is also to transfer technology from racing to production vehicles. The FIA Formula E championship for all-electric racing cars has been held annually since 2014/15 and now features well-known OEMs such as Audi, BMW, DS, Mercedes, Jaguar, Nissan and Porsche. On 13 August 2020, the sixth season ended with the final race in Berlin. Compact Dynamics has been involved as a supplier for more than five years.
In his impulse speech, Oliver Blamberger (CEO, Compact Dynamics, Germany) will explain the objectives of his company’s commitment. “Together with our parent company Schaeffler, Compact Dynamics has developed and installed a dedicated ‘Race to Road Strategy‘ to support series projects with innovative technology”. In addition to Formula E, Compact Dynamics has also gained racing experience in Formula 1 and the World Endurance Championship (WEC). As of 2022, the company will be the exclusive series supplier for the newly developed hybrid system at the FIA World Rally Championship (WRC).
After his talk, Oliver Blamberger will take part in the expert discussion on ‘Formula E and its Impact on E-Mobility’. His fellow participants will include Gerd Mäuser (Jaguar Racing, Great Britain) and Lucas Di Grassi (FIA Formula E World Champion, Roborace, Great Britain). Jaguar has fielded its own team in the Formula E championship since the 2016/17 season. Last year, the company surprised everyone by launching the Jaguar I-PACE eTROPHY, where drivers compete in an optimised version of Jaguar’s first all-electric road vehicle. Brazilian racing driver Lucas Di Grassi has been in Formula E non-stop from the beginning, and won the Drivers’ Title in 2016/17. He has more points and more podium places than any other driver in the history of the electric series. In 2016, Di Grassi was vice champion in the FIA World Endurance Championship (WEC).
When three participants bring so much competence, experience and enthusiasm to the table, the audience can look forward to a thrilling discussion about motorsport without the roaring engines or the smell of high-octane fuel – and its benefits for the road-going electric vehicles of tomorrow.
CTI SYMPOSIUM GERMANY DIGITAL EDITION – a really good live platform
This year, CTI SYMPOSIUM GERMANY will take place as a top quality, inspiring online event that offers you multiple ways to interact and communicate with speakers, attendees, and exhibitors, including live video calls. Besides acting as a digital exhibition hall, the SYMPOSIUM DIGITAL EXPO will also act as your platform for new products, live presentations, 1on1 meetings and much more besides. The substantial reduction in fees is not just extremely budget friendly, it also means more colleagues can participate. Best of all, there’s no travelling: all you do is log in. Save time and money with a convenient online event that adapts to your individual schedule, and reduces your carbon footprint too. Be there – be a pioneer!
The new 8DCL900 is more than just a highlight in supercar transmission development. As our interview with Dr Jörg Gindele shows, taking technology to the limits can benefit large-scale production too. Mr Gindele, the new 8DCL900 Performance Dual Clutch Transmission you and Ferrari co-presented at CTI Berlin has a proven predecessor: the 7DCL750. Why the […]
The new 8DCL900 is more than just a highlight in supercar transmission development. As our interview with Dr Jörg Gindele shows, taking technology to the limits can benefit large-scale production too.
Mr Gindele, the new 8DCL900 Performance Dual Clutch Transmission you and Ferrari co-presented at CTI Berlin has a proven predecessor: the 7DCL750. Why the new development?
Performance cars have extreme torque and performance requirements. These have increased significantly in the past ten years, one reason being hybridisation. For example, the Ferrari SF 90 Stradale has an e-motor between the engine and transmission that enables overall peak torque ratings of up to 1100 Nm. We also wanted to significantly improve shift times – and direct hydraulic control has clear advantages there. On top of more performance, we also wanted even more internal efficiency. The additional eighth gear improves overall efficiency too. And finally, we wanted to get the car’s centre of gravity even lower. So to achieve a lower installation position, we moved the whole hydraulic system up within the transmission. A transmission like this is also a reference product.
What insights can you transfer to series production?
That’s an important point. We often ask ourselves what we can adopt from racing or high-performance applications that let you explore the limits, and demand that you do. For instance, we developed a new transmission casing with a honeycomb structure that’s lighter, and improves casting quality even more. We’re now adopting the new method in all series-production applications. Other examples include high-end triple carbon synchronizers, plus new materials and tooth geometries. Asymmetrical toothing is important because you can put more torque on the traction flank than on the thrust flank. We’re transferring that to series production too. You mentioned hybridisation in sports cars.
How does that differ from large-series production?
Performance hybrids and consumption-oriented hybrids use fundamentally different approaches. Reducing fuel consumption is an issue in sports cars too. But in a large-scale production vehicle you might replace the 6-cylinder ICE with a smaller 4-cylinder, then add an e-motor so you still have the same overall system performance. Whereas in the Performance sector I’d probably use one or more e-motors to add power to my 8-cylinder engine. The focus is on high performance and agility, not maximum range. And for weight reasons, you’d use a battery that might not have the highest capacity, but provides power quickly through its high power density.
How is growing electrification in large-series applications changing the role of transmissions in general – not just in sports cars?
In the last ten to fifteen years, transmissions have played an increasingly important role. More and more, they’re becoming central torque coordinators in the powertrain. When you have multiple drive sources on board, the transmission is where they converge. Hybrid managers are often located near the transmission – or the functions are combined in the TCU. Actually, the engine now plays a smaller role; the TCU will usually handle its torque.
Looking further ahead, what are the prospects for dedicated transmission concepts, or DHTs?
Our assumption is that DHTs will replace ‘normal’ transmissions in many areas. One reason is that we’re taking mechanical complexity out of the system and replacing it with electrical functions…
Magna uses a scalable set of building blocks to create complete powertrain systems for pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles, covering the full range of system architectures from 48 V to 800 V. Cutting edge virtual methods including artificial intelligence algorithms for predicting performance-, efficiency-, durability-, NVH-, thermal- and EMC-attributes are used in an early […]
Magna uses a scalable set of building blocks to create complete powertrain systems for pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles, covering the full range of system architectures from 48 V to 800 V. Cutting edge virtual methods including artificial intelligence algorithms for predicting performance-, efficiency-, durability-, NVH-, thermal- and EMC-attributes are used in an early development phase to functionally integrate the building blocks to an application specific eDrive system meeting the local market and OEM requirements.
Due to large variations in legislation regarding CO2 emission and fleet consumption in the US, Europe and China, many different types of electrified powertrain systems are needed in the market. In addition the end-customer expectations for pure Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) regarding performance and comfort will trigger new requirements on the electric components. It is an excellent opportunity for OEMs to provide a new level of agility and functionality using the additional degrees of freedom provided by Electric Drive (eDrive) solutions.
Based on successful eDrive serial products on the market since 2011, Magna developed eDrive platforms with cutting edge technology to meet these high expectations of future automotive applications in the range of 17 kW to 250 kW of power. The so called “building blocks” of an e-motor and inverter are re-used in a wide range of different applications providing flexibility by scaling and improving robustness as well as reducing time to market.
One important platform within this overall product strategy is the 48 V high speed platform, which was developed specifically to cover a forecasted market demand for high volume mild hybrid powertrain systems. Magna’s 48 V e-motor/inverter solutions provide an integration-friendly solution with high recuperation potential as well as the customer benefit of a traction aid system and limited pure electric driving.
Magna’s 48 V serial production platform consists of a scalable permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) to achieve the highest power density and a modular inverter using metal oxide semi-conductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). These two building blocks are used for several applications with a speed range of 20,000 to 35,000 rpm and a power of 17 to 25 kW peak. This e-motor/inverter platform will be mainly used in applications with very challenging packages in P1, P2.5-, P3- and P4-architectures. There will be an oil cooled version of the motor for the application in hybrid double clutch transmissions. Other applications will use a water-cooled version, and the inverter will be water-cooled in every version. The CO2 benefit of such 25 kW systems can be as much as 21 % depending on the vehicle and system configuration.