The Expert Summit for a Sustainable Future Mobility
INTERNATIONAL DELEGATES, EXHIBITORS & SPEAKERS
POWERTRAIN EXECUTIVE SPEECHES
4 EXECUTIVE AND EXPERT PANELS
12 DEEP DIVE TECHNICAL SESSIONS
25+ HOURS OF CONTENT & NETWORKING
CTI RIDE & DRIVE
Only together we can create a sustainable future mobility. CO2 reduction is critical for automotive drivetrain. Here the battery electric drive using renewable energy is the focus. What can we do to increase efficiency and reliability, reduce cost and at the same time reduce the upstream CO2? At CTI SYMPOSIUM the automotive industry discusses the challenges it faces and promising strategies. Latest solutions in the fields of electric drives, power electronics, battery systems, e-machines as well as the manufacturing of these components and supply chain improvements are presented. For the bigger picture market and consumer research results as well as infrastructure related topics supplement the exchange of expertise.CTI SYMPOSIA drive the progress in individual and commercial automotive transportation. Manufacturer, suppliers and institutions are showing how to master the demanding challenges.
Automotive mobility is saying farewell to combustion engines and heading for a carbon-free electric future. This far-reaching technology shift is stimulating the creativity and innovative powers of developers. Their intelligent solutions not only support sustainability and global climate protection, but also convince, or even inspire, customers in daily life. Next-generation EVs are playing to their […]
Automotive mobility is saying farewell to combustion engines and heading for a carbon-free electric future. This far-reaching technology shift is stimulating the creativity and innovative powers of developers. Their intelligent solutions not only support sustainability and global climate protection, but also convince, or even inspire, customers in daily life. Next-generation EVs are playing to their inherent strengths – and lifting comfort, driving dynamics and safety to the next level.
The CTI Symposium USA – where ideas compete to shape progress
In the plenum, experts and decision-makers from leading OEMs and suppliers will present their strategies and technologies live. Hear all the facts – and join in the discussion yourself. Our twelve Deep Dive sessions have all the latest electric drive systems and key components covered. Get an overview of what’s happening, and discover interesting aspects such as cutting-edge series products, realistic market research, and a teardown semiconductor comparison.
Magna EtelligentReach – advanced e-drive double act to enter series production
In early 2021, Magna unveiled its EtelligentReach electric all-wheel drive (eAWD), which achieved a new level of driving dynamics and range. The second generation followed in 2022 and included further improvements in lateral dynamics, plus even higher system efficiency. Now Dr. Daniel Lindvai-Soos, (Magna Powertrain, Austria) will be reporting on the Magna eAWD technology that will soon be entering production in a new series EV model.
The eAWD technology doubles overall power without significantly reducing range. The enabling factors include a complementary powertrain layout in which the primary and secondary drives interact. Key components include dedicated optimized inverters for both drives, the latest high-efficiency electric motors, a decoupling system for the secondary drive, and an intelligent operating strategy.
As eAWD shows, high-performance motors and efficiency need not be mutually exclusive. In this system, the driving strategy uses the motors’ efficiency maps in a way that can improve overall efficiency. Magna’s EtelligentReach technology also provides longitudinal torque vectoring, for excellent levels of ride control and active safety. In his presentation, Dr. Lindvai-Soos will describe the overall powertrain system approach and the components involved in detail. The speaker will place particular emphasis on the e-motor and inverter technology, the complementary system approach, and further opportunities through the integration of advanced ADAS and Connectivity.
What do owners love and hate about their EVs? A survey and its implications
When it comes to improving product quality, the best policy is to listen carefully to the praise and criticism your customers can offer. The consulting firm Strategic Vision systematically surveys new EV buyers in the USA and China. Evaluations are based on authentic statements from owners. “They tell us what they love about their vehicles, and what they hate,” says Paul Haelterman (Strategic Vision, USA). His presentation will focus on three key areas: battery range, Human Machine Interface (HMI) and Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS).
Strategic Vision’s methodology has already been validated in numerous countries. The insights distilled from tens of thousands of surveys reflect what people really think, and how they make decisions. The main conclusions Paul Haelterman presents will show how well consumer needs are being met, how wide the expectation gap is, and whether upcoming technologies will be able to close it. Particularly in China, new technologies will likely be presented soon.
Semiconductors as efficiency boosters; silicon carbide too costly for Tesla. What do experts say?
The fact that next-generation electric drives offer greater motor efficiency across multiple driving scenarios, plus impressive ranges and shorter charging times, is largely due to sophisticated semiconductor technology. The arrival of bidirectional charging, where the charger also feeds electricity from the car into the smart grid, likewise calls for high-performance semiconductors.
In his plenary lecture, Patrick Leteinturier (Infineon, Germany) will therefore describe semiconductors as a key technology for tomorrow’s smart, green mobility. Infineon offers a broad portfolio of highly developed semiconductor modules for all relevant EV applications, and is continuously working on innovative solutions. For CTI Symposium USA attendees, Patrick Leteinturier’s outlook is sure to be of great interest.
“75 percent less silicon carbide!” When Tesla announced this target for its new drive unit at the Tesla Investor Day in early March 2023, people sat up and took notice. SiC technology enables highly efficient, ultra-compact inverters – but due to high costs and scalability issues, the jury is still out.
Wolfspeed is a leading semiconductor manufacturer that specializes in silicon carbide. Jeff Casadi (Wolfspeed, USA) will explain the specific challenges that arise when developing and producing silicon carbide power components specifically for EV drivetrains. He will provide insights into work, studies and data across the entire product lifecycle. One focus point will be silicon carbide’s reliability, from initial qualification through long-term wear mechanisms during service life to end-of-life failure. The speaker will also discuss manufacturing scalability across the entire vertical supply chain.
Dr. Yu Yang (Yole Intelligence, France) will present a detailed roadmap for power modules used in main inverter applications. The analysis will cover key aspects such as substrates, packaging technology and cooling, incorporating key technological trends. An in-house Teardown Comparison of the latest Si IGBT and SiC MOSFET power modules offers detailed insights into their outer profiles, internal geometries, detailed interconnection and material analysis, based on a well-defined methodology at Yole System Plus. The modules analyzed come from Denso, STMicroelectronics, Wolfspeed and other manufacturers.
Mercedes-AMG GT 63 S E PERFORMANCE – turbocharged with adrenaline
If needed, drivers have a massive 620 kW (843 hp) of power and 1,400 Nm of torque at their command. If they use it, the iconic sound of the Mercedes-AMG GT 63 S E PERFORMANCE is sure to remind them that they are pushing performance to the max. Driving out of the garage and through the suburbs, on the other hand, is silent, emission-free and electric.
The most powerful Mercedes-AMG supercar to date is also the first to feature a plug-in hybrid drive. As Joe Mueller (American Axle Manufacturing, USA) will explain, the rear axle Electric Drive Unit (EDU) is supplied by AAM. By electrifying its premium AMG models, Mercedes is able to meet tighter vehicle emissions regulations while simultaneously improving the driving performance its customers expect. This vehicle can accelerate from 0-60 mph in a breathtaking 2.9 seconds, yet fuel consumption is surprisingly low – a perfect example of boosting and recuperation working as a team.
AAM’s P3 EDU comprises a Permanent Synchronous e-Machine (PSM), an electrically actuated two-speed transmission, and an electronic limited slip differential. It is housed in the rear axle. AAM’s compact, yet powerful power unit requires no significant modifications to the vehicle’s powertrain or body structure. In his presentation, Joe Mueller will detail the EDU’s design features and illustrate the resulting performance characteristics, using pictures and videos taken during lab and in-car testing.
The Mercedes-AMG GT 63 S E PERFORMANCE EDU follows the successful Jaguar I-PACE EDU, which launched in 2018. AAM has also secured further orders globally for electric drives that will launch before 2025.
The CTI Symposium USA – from plenary hall to test track
Plan your trip to the 17th CTI Symposium USA now – and compile your very own two-day program packed with highlights. Which plenary speeches and discussions are top of your list? Which of the twelve Deep Dive sessions interest you most? During the breaks, you can check out important innovations for yourself at the CTI Expo – or experience the latest EV innovations at first hand in a series or demo vehicle on the CTI Ride & Drive parcours. As for networking, the CTI Networking Night @Meadow Brook Hall is the place to be. Chat with colleagues, speakers, exhibitors and sponsors over delicious food and drinks – and make valuable new business contacts in a relaxed atmosphere.
Tomorrow’s automotive mobility will be sustainable and carbon neutral. While that would be impossible for internal combustion engines, for battery-electric drives the goal is in sight. From the considerable heights already scaled, developers are aiming higher still by improving the operation and production of electric motors. Innovative technologies are boosting efficiency and range while lowering […]
Tomorrow’s automotive mobility will be sustainable and carbon neutral. While that would be impossible for internal combustion engines, for battery-electric drives the goal is in sight. From the considerable heights already scaled, developers are aiming higher still by improving the operation and production of electric motors. Innovative technologies are boosting efficiency and range while lowering costs; valuable raw materials are being used more sparingly; and CO2 balances are improving, even during production.
Highly efficient – just like the CTI Symposium USA
At the CTI Symposium USA, experts and decision-makers from leading OEMs and suppliers will present their strategies and technologies for tomorrow’s carbon neutral mobility. Come and get the latest information live at first hand – and contribute to the discussion yourself. Explore the latest electric drive systems and their key components in twelve Deep Dive sessions. Discover the developments and field results that matter for you. On two days, in a single location, all this and more awaits you.
A comprehensive range of electric motors (PM, ASM, SSM, HPM), plus a star
Switching to electric drives is an urgent necessity. At the same time, the process is also paying off for companies and releasing synergies. “By continuously focusing on electric motor development, we have found further improvements in reducing our CO2 footprint during production, all while improving efficiency,” says Jonathan Getz (Schaeffler, USA).
Schaeffler’s broad range of modular electric motors offers ideal solutions for the diverse challenges posed by the world’s growing variety of electric drive vehicles. From traditional PSM motors to advanced magnet-free motors with powered rotor coils, sustainability is always baked in. Schaeffler uses special tools for eMotor optimization that take torque, power, efficiency, strength and NVH into account, all while balancing the financial and environmental costs of the motor.
As a special example of this development work, Jonathan Getz will highlight the Separately-Excited Synchronous Motor (SSM). Here, replacing the permanent magnets with rotor windings has substantially reduced both the CO2 footprint during production, and the dependency on rare earth materials. Special optimizations to the cooling system, plus the use of brushless, inductive transmitters, further boost the motor’s efficiency.
Schaeffler’s advanced PSM, ASM, SSM and HPM (Hybrid Permanent Magnet) motors for different applications offer solutions that are efficient and sustainable, yet also cost effective. The electric motor designs can be applied to build to print, build to motor, and even build to system specifications.
WLTC is too imprecise – more highway, more range for LCV
Light commercial vehicles (LCV) in particular are virtually made for battery-electric drives, says Daniele Zecchetti (Marelli Europe, Italy) in his introduction. As delivery vehicles, their local emission-free operation guarantees them access to current and future urban clean air zones. The electric drive ensures low downtime and service costs, and range is rarely an issue because vehicles can charge at the depot overnight.
Essentially, this performance profile is what defines LCV electric drive specifications, whereby both LCVs and passenger cars use WLTC to certify emissions and fuel consumption, or to measure their electric range. But today, that strong focus on urban deliveries is no longer enough for battery-electric LCVs. Good efficiency and range in extra-urban and typical highway conditions, with maximum payload, have also begun to influence electric powertrain specifications and design.
Marelli has developed a method for systematically developing and optimizing electric motor design according to defined requirements. Daniele Zecchetti will explain the tool chain used, and will present the results of vehicle simulations in relevant cycles. The goal was to find the best compromise between range, maximum total weight and costs for LCV electric drives, in line with the new framework parameters.
Convincing technology, low cost – a wheel hub drive that forces you to think again
“Today’s electric vehicles still suffer from low efficiency and insufficient range, especially in cold weather and when driving on the freeway,” says Dr. Alexander Rosen, co-founder of the German start-up DeepDrive. In WLTP and EPA, the average plug-to-wheel efficiency of modern electric vehicles is below 60%. Now DeepDrive has developed a new motor architecture for in-wheel motors that focuses on high efficiency, especially in everyday driving situations.
The motor topology is based on a highly innovative radial flux approach with novel winding technology. The no-transmission motor presented by the speaker offers high specific torque densities of up to 60 Nm/kg. The special design of the stator reduces iron losses and enables very high efficiency levels, especially in the partial load range. Dr. Rosen will discuss in depth the critical issue of unsprung masses; the solution includes the innovative integration of a lightweight brake system.
Until now, the main obstacle for wheel hub drives has been their cost. Dr. Rosen will counter this by showing how the DeepDrive wheel hub drive combines sparing use of materials (e.g. for the magnetic mass and sheet metal packages) with simple, cost-effective manufacturing processes (e.g. for the windings).
His case study for a mid-size vehicle will show how these wheel hub drives can reduce EV purchase and operating costs by up to €5,000 while also increasing range by 20% with the same battery capacity. The drives are suitable for all EV types, from compact cars to premium SUVs and even sports cars.
The heart of the electric motor – innovative solutions for rotor and stator windings
To a large extent, coil windings are what determine the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of electric traction motors. So in addition to the established stator manufacturing processes (hairpin and insertion technology) and wound rotors (flyer and needle windings), there is still a demand for innovations – especially with the shift toward higher voltages in e-traction drives.
Summing up his company’s strategy, Kumar Rajasekhara (Marsilli, USA) has this to say: “We have developed solutions that get the best out of traditional technologies by combining their advantages, and reducing their drawbacks.”
The speaker will begin his presentation with an update on the latest developments in Marsilli’s Distributed High Density (DHD) stator winding technology. This patented winding solution is specifically used to reduce high-frequency losses and ensure high flexibility in e-motor design and the winding scheme, and also boasts a high fill factor. Last year, the winding technology was introduced to the North American market with a comparative analysis based on 400V, 3,500 RPM DHD-wound motors. This year, Marsilli will present study results in which DHD-wound prototypes also performed well at higher voltage (800V) and higher (18,000) RPM.
As his second focus point, Kumar Rajasekhara will cover new rotor winding technologies for Externally Excited Synchronous Motors (EESM). Marsilli has developed two new solutions for high performing rotors that achieve the winding scheme stability and geometric winding scheme accuracy demanded by high-voltage drives. The speaker will present and analyze the features, functionality, differences and use cases of both solutions in detail.
Production lines for hairpin stators – processes, modules and surprising insights into copper wires
Since EV drive motors need stators in large quantities – and will continue to do so in future –, flexible and highly efficient production lines are required in order to meet market demand. Matthias Weber (Felsomat, Germany) will describe the latest developments in hairpin stator manufacturing. When designing customer-specific configurations, the entire process chain, modular processing machines and buffer loops are all examined.
The most critical part of the hairpin stator is the CU wire used. The composition and material specifications needed for this wire go beyond the specifications that are commonly listed. This leaves automotive OEMs and stator line manufacturers in the dark, a situation Felsomat was not prepared to accept. “We have carried out many trials, laboratory and specification tests, leading to endless application adjustments,” says Matthias Weber. The speaker will share these insights with his audience. The knowledge obtained through researching material properties and tolerances plays a key role in enabling production lines to run at optimal speeds and tolerances, and contributes directly to optimal stator quality.
Turn off your screen – and come to CTI Symposium USA
Get out of the office for two days and visit the CTI Symposium USA! Follow the discussions live in the plenum, then catch up on the latest news from your specialist field in the sessions. During the breaks, check out important innovations by taking a tour of CTI Expo. Series and demo vehicles await you at our CTI Ride & Drive parcours, where you can experience real-world progress in electric propulsion for yourself, either behind the wheel or as a passenger. As for networking, the CTI Networking Night @Meadow Brook Hall is the place to be. Get talking with colleagues, speakers, exhibitors and sponsors over delicious food and drinks – and make valuable new business contacts in a relaxed atmosphere!
Aaron Kappes , Steffen Frei , Sebastian Luz , Prof. Stephan Rinderknecht, Institute for Mechatronic Systems, TU Darmstadt; Institute for power electronics and control of drives, TU Darmstadt An electric Two-Drive-Powertrain using two electric machines is presented, which allows a highly efficient over all usage. The multi-motor approach achieves a downsizing effect, when one motor is deactivated during […]
Aaron Kappes , Steffen Frei , Sebastian Luz , Prof. Stephan Rinderknecht, Institute for Mechatronic Systems, TU Darmstadt; Institute for power electronics and control of drives, TU Darmstadt
An electric Two-Drive-Powertrain using two electric machines is presented, which allows a highly efficient over all usage. The multi-motor approach achieves a downsizing effect, when one motor is deactivated during moderate driving. The novel features of the powertrain are its electric synchronized dog clutches and its two highly overloadable electric machines, each connected to a two-speed sub transmission providing a total of four different electric speeds. This arrangement enables full torque support during shifting processes. In addition, the waste heat from the inverters and the electric machines is used for heating the transmission oil under cold environmental conditions, thus increasing efficiency. Furthermore, the possibility and advantages of adding an internal combustion engine mechanically linked to both sub transmissions and its realization in a public founded project is addressed.
Increasing efficiency is a major target in the development of electric drivetrains. In parallel to established BEVs with one electric motor and a fixed transmission ratio, multi-speed [1, 2] and multi-motor [3, 4, 5] con-cepts are gaining importance. At the IMS of the TU Darmstadt, research is focused on multi-motor and multi-speed drives called TDT („Two-Drive-Transmission“). These electric drives combine high efficiency and performance by using a downsizing effect, according to which a highly utilized electric drive can be operated more efficiently than a large one in its corresponding partial load.
The conceptual benefits of an all-electric concept with two small electric machines with two speeds each, called TDT22, have al-ready been outlined in . Efficiency advantages of up to 8.3% were identified for urban use compared to a benchmark fixed speed BEV. For short and slow driving, there is almost no alternative to a BEV from an ecological point of view. When it comes to long range,  stated that it is currently not reasonable to realize high ranges by using larger and heavier batteries. The battery capacity of BEVs ca-pable of reliably reaching distances greater than 500 km increases to more than 100 kWh. A current P2 hybrid concept with optimized energy storage sizes and propulsion machines shows poten-tial to reduce the CO2 footprint from cradle to grave because of its smaller battery. To achieve this, however, it must be charged regularly and driven mainly electrical. In addition, there are user benefits such as rapid refueling e.g., using renewable fuels in the future if an even longer distance is to be covered.
With these potentials in perspective, this paper will focus on the de-velopment of a hybrid version of a TDT22 already mentioned in ; a TDT4LR („Two-Drive-Transmission for Long Range“). This concept is based on a DRT (Dedicated Range-Extender Transmission) and is cur-rently being developed and built in the public funded Project DE4LoRa for a dedicated use case.
The vehicle being developed in DE4LoRa is designed for a typical German average user and leaves a minimal environmental footprint. According to the “Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt”  the 101-110 kW power class contained in 2020 by far the most new-registrations in one of the dis-crete subdivisions. This number was only topped by the open-ended category of more than 151 kW. At the same time, the most frequently registered class was the rather unspecific one of SUVs, closely followed by the C-segment . As the former is not suited for an ecological vehicle, the focus is on the latter. According to a study from the Federal Ministry for Digital and Transport called “Mobility in Germany” sur-veyed in 2017 , approx. 80% of passenger car trips covered less than 20 km, with only approx. 30% of the total mileage of a vehicle reached on short distances of less than 20 km in total. Therefore, the develop-ment of the drivetrain was focused on this use case (e.g., daily commute to work and twice a year a long trip on vacation).
A BEV designed for this user profile needs a large and heavy battery, barely using its full capacity. In contrast, the DE4LoRa concept was de-veloped to cover ranges of up to 100 km electric combined with the high efficiency benefits of a TDT22. To reduce complexity, two iden-tical electric machines have been designed, each realizing a continu-ous power of at least 40 kW to enable highly efficient driving with one EM during moderate cycles like the WLTC. Furthermore, they can jointly provide 120 kW peak power for short sporty driving. To enable shifting without interrupting traction even at high accelerations, both electric motors are able to provide 120 kW each for the very short duration of a shifting process. The development of these permanent magnet syn-chronous machine is further described in .
Assuming constant transmission efficiencies, as well as a constant bat-tery voltage and temperatures, a simple heuristic operating strategy for electric modes can be created. The resulting shifting map for this TDT22 is shown in Figure 1. The advantages of four different electric gears com-pared to a non-shiftable transmission are described in more detail in .
In an overall assessment of the electric consumption, the relatively low transmission losses cause a significant proportion of the total loss-es due to the high efficiency of power electronics, electric machines, and batteries. Therefore, electrically synchronized dog clutches were chosen to avoid friction losses which would occur in mechanical syn-chronization units. Furthermore, the losses of a transmission increase with higher viscosity of the transmission oil e.g., at low temperatures. To keep the efficiency as high as possible after a frequently expected cold start in winter, it can be beneficial to use the waste heat from the electrical components for conditioning the transmission oil. To further increase electrical efficiency, DE4LoRa also uses a rather high voltage level up to 820 V. Since the efficiency drops with the voltage over the state of charge of a battery, the latter should be kept as high as possible. In this concept, the electrical consumption in the WLTC increases by ap-prox. 5% if started at an SOC of 25% compared to 90%.
For the use case described above, highly efficient short-range electric driving alone is insufficient. To improve the concept for occasional long-distance, a monovalent methane gas engine is added. This engine can be connected to both sub-transmissions with different gear ratios, as shown in Figure 2, enabling multiple parallel and serial hybrid modes. This integration combined with the high dynamics and performance of the electric drive allowes the gas motor to be operated in a phlegma-tized manner, thus minimizing emissions and maximizing its efficiency.
In addition, methane provides a high energy density per carbon atom, can be produced synthetically more efficiently than liquid synthetic fuels, and, unlike hydrogen, is easy to store and benefits from an existing infrastruc-ture. Optimizing the gear ratios of this transmission involves a compro-mise between highly efficient electric and SOC-neutral hybrid modes, with SOC-neutral consumption being more sensitive to changes. It has been shown that an electric overdrive provides efficiency benefits, re-sulting in a top speed of 180 km/h in SOC-neutral operation in the third, not fourth gear.
During optimization constant transmission efficiencies were assumed between 96.9 and 97.8% for each mode-dependent combination of two spur gears. In real applications, these effi-ciencies depend not only on the acting speeds and torques but also on the viscosity of the gear oil and thus its temperature. With lower temperatures, the transmission losses increase disproportionately. The inverter and electric machine generate usually unused waste heat. If the lubrication concept of the transmis-sion already uses an oil pump, the heat can be used for conditioning the oil by adding a heat exchanger.
The potential depends on several parameters like the current efficien-cies, the water flow rate, and the oil used. To investigate the possibili-ties for this project, an analytical transmission loss model was created, which includes the viscosity of the gear oil in its calculations of churning losses, meshing losses, sealing losses, and bearing losses. Not only the load-carrying elements but also all co-rotating parts for every mode are considered. This model is supplemented by a lumped-element thermal model of all transmission components. All loss effected transmission parts as well as a water-oil heat exchanger and 30% of the losses of the electric machine at the input shafts are implemented as heat sources. Thus, both the self-heating of the gearbox and the heat transfer from an external water circuit is represented.
Two different transmission oils and two different scenarios were consid-ered, using only modes with one EM for simplification. First, a common rather more viscous transmission oil was modeled corresponding to a SAE 80W90. Figures 3 and 4 show the simulation results for a cold start in the Artemis Urban cycle with 0°C ambient temperature.
The efficiency changes of the transmission are shown in Figure 4; in blue without using the heat exchanger, in red with a water flow rate of 1 l/min. In addition, the efficiency with an oil temperature of 60°C at the beginning is shown as a benchmark in gray. Figure 5 shows the most relevant results of the simulations. The heat exchanger in this configuration enables an efficiency advantage of 1.3% which is no-ticeable, but significantly lower than the efficiency with already warm oil. If the gear layout and the acting surface pressures allow the use of an oil with (very) low viscosity, much higher total savings are pos-sible. On the other hand, the benefits of conditioning are hardly notice-able with this lubricant. Finally, the potential in a WLTC at 20°C ambi-ent temperature is evaluated, whereby the heat exchanger leads to an 0.6% lower energy consumption. Prospectively, the usage of additional waste heat by other consumers, such as an internal combustion engine, could achieve greater improvements. Furthermore, the effect could be improved by further optimizing the flow rates and quantity of water and oil.
The concept idea for a hybrid TDT22, the development process as well as the results achieved in the DE4LoRa project so far were stated. It is tailored to fulfill the requirements of an average Ger-man driver with minimized ecological footprint. It covers short distances in highly efficient elec-tric driving due to the advantages of four speeds, uses a comparatively small and thus light battery, a high voltage level, and supplementary oil conditioning. To maximize efficiency, it is rec-ommended to keep the SOC as high as possible. In addition, the effect of transmission oil con-ditioning was examined in more detail, and in summary, the loss reduction potential depends primarily on the oil used. If a conventional trans-mission oil is used, there can be considerable efficiency benefits for short trips and cold am-bient temperatures – 1.3% in this example. How-ever, if the design or maintenance strategy al-lows using a low-viscosity oil, the effect if an oil conditioning decreases significantly and com-bined with longer driving distances and higher ambient temperatures, becomes unnoticeable small.
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